Hong Kong’s Gross National Income decreases by 0.5%

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Hong Kong Government Press Release

17th March 2023 – (Hong Kong)  The Census and Statistics Department (C&SD) released today the preliminary statistics on Hong Kong’s Gross National Income (GNI) and related figures for the fourth quarter of 2022 and the whole year of 2022.
 
Hong Kong’s GNI, which denotes the total income earned by Hong Kong residents from engaging in various economic activities, decreased by 0.5% in the fourth quarter of 2022 from a year earlier to $774.4 billion at current market prices. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP), estimated at $738.9 billion at current market prices in the same quarter, recorded a 1.9% decrease from a year earlier. The value of GNI was larger than GDP by $35.4 billion in the fourth quarter of 2022, which was equivalent to 4.8% of GDP in that quarter, mainly attributable to a net inflow of investment income.
 
After netting out the effect of price changes over the same period, Hong Kong’s GNI decreased by 2.7% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2022 from a year earlier. The corresponding GDP in the same quarter decreased by 4.2% in real terms.
 
 Hong Kong’s total inflow of primary income, which mainly comprises investment income, estimated at $415.1 billion in the fourth quarter of 2022 and equivalent to 56.2% of GDP in that quarter, recorded an increase of 10.4% over a year earlier. Meanwhile, total primary income outflow, estimated at $379.7 billion in the fourth quarter of 2022 and equivalent to 51.4% of GDP in that quarter, also increased by 8.2% over a year earlier.
 
 As for the major components of investment income inflow, direct investment income (DII) decreased by 1.8% from a year earlier, mainly due to the decrease in earnings of some prominent local enterprises from their direct investment abroad. Portfolio investment income (PII) recorded an increase of 0.8% over a year earlier, mainly attributable to the increase in interest income received by resident investors from their holdings of non-resident debt securities.
 
 Regarding the major components of investment income outflow, DII decreased by 1.5% from a year earlier, mainly due to the decrease in earnings of some prominent multinational enterprises from their direct investment in Hong Kong. PII increased significantly by 13.2%, mainly attributable to the increase in dividend payout to non-resident investors from their holdings of resident equity securities.
 
Analysed by country/territory, the mainland of China continued to be the largest source of Hong Kong’s total primary income inflow in the fourth quarter of 2022, accounting for 39.4%. This was followed by the British Virgin Islands (BVI), with a share of 23.5%. Regarding total primary income outflow, the mainland of China and the BVI remained the most important destinations in the fourth quarter of 2022, accounting for 27.7% and 21.6% respectively.
     
 For 2022 as a whole, Hong Kong’s GNI decreased by 1.3% from a year earlier to $3,026.5 billion at current market prices.  The difference of $199.5 billion from GDP for the same year (estimated at $2,827.0 billion) represented a net primary income inflow of the same amount and was equivalent to 7.1% of GDP in that year. The total primary income inflow was estimated at $1,757.3 billion, or 62.2% of GDP in 2022 while the corresponding outflow at $1,557.8 billion, or 55.1% of GDP in 2022. After netting out the effect of price changes, Hong Kong’s GNI decreased by 3.6% in real terms in 2022 from 2021.